Stephen Harper and George W. Bush should share warm personal relationships and close relationships between their governments. Because Mr. Bush is so unpopular with Liberals in Canada (particularly in the media), the Harper government has underestimated this.  The volume of cross-border economic activity underscores the extent of economic integration between the United States and Canada. The two nations still have one of the world`s largest trading relationships, with $1.6 billion a day of goods crossing the border in 2017. However, in 2015, China overtook Canada as the largest trading partner of the United States. Canada is the largest destination for U.S. exports, although China replaced Canada as the largest import supplier to the United States in 2007 and Mexico overtook Canada in 2015. Before the British conquest of France in Canada in 1760, there had been a series of wars between the British and the French, which took place in the colonies as well as in Europe and on the high seas. In general, the British relied heavily on American colonial militias, while the French relied heavily on their First Nation allies. The Iroquais were important allies of the British.  Much of the fighting included ambushes and small wars in villages along the New England-Quebec border.
The New England colonies had a much larger population than Quebec, so large invasions came from south to north. First Nation allies, controlled in bulk by the French, repeatedly attacked villages in New England to kidnap women and children and torture and kill men.  Those who survived were raised as French-speaking Catholics. Tensions along the border were exacerbated by religion, french Catholics and English Protestants had a deep mutual distrust.  There was also a marine dimension where private enemy commercial ships were attacking.  With this document, Canada has revealed its most recent position on Arctic issues. Canada expects the United States to participate in its efforts and become partners in the Arctic. It also sends the message to the world that it does not intend to confront in the North. The most important thing is that Canada expects the role of the Arctic Council to be strengthened and that the decisions of the Arctic Council will be legally binding on the countries concerned. It is therefore easy to infer from the three official documents that Canada wants the cooperation and strengthening of the Arctic Council for the future of the Arctic.
With respect to Canadian arctic exploration, oil and gas deposits have already been found and developed in the Mackenzie Delta and Canada`s western Arctic islands. The potential to find new natural gas and oil deposits in these areas is quite high. Canada is the largest exporter of hydrocarbons to the United States, supplying approximately two million barrels of oil per country to its neighbour, or about 10-15% of U.S. requirements (Kolisnek 2008). The United States and Canada share their support for Fulbright Canada. The Fulbright program is a mutual housing exchange that provides American and Canadian students of excellence, independent scientists and researchers with the opportunity to study, teach and/or conduct research in the other country.