In 2002, the Supreme Court upheld its belief that advertising is protected by the United States. Amendment rights in Watchtower Society v. Village of Stratton. According to Judge John Paul Stevens, a 2018 study in the American Economic Review showed that door-to-door advertising on behalf of the François Hollande campaign in the 2012 French presidential election „did not influence turnout, but increased Hollande`s votes in the first round and accounted for a quarter of his lead in the second round. Visits were maintained in subsequent elections, reflecting a lasting persuasive effect.  In 1999, Gerber and Green published their first paper presenting a strictly controlled experiment that resulted in a significant increase in voter turnout through advertising in municipal elections in New Haven, Connecticut.  This study stimulated interest in the topic. Since then, Gerber, Green and other political scientists have implemented a program that has verified these results and tested the most effective techniques. Foot Canvassing is the most effective contact method that increases the participation rate by about 7 percentage points, while telephony increases it by 2.6 points. Other contact techniques, such as direct mail, robocalls and email, have minimal to undetectable effects.
 Other studies have shown that advertising can do more to increase turnout and, through conviction, win new voices at the door.   Canvassing operations are now increasingly practiced because of the very obvious benefits for participants. Working on so many election campaigns around the world, we see every possible way to manage advertising. Organised political advertising has become a central tool for controversial election campaigns in Britain and has remained an essential practice carried out by thousands of volunteers at every election there and in many countries with similar political systems. It is less prevalent in continental Europe and east Asian democracies. [Citation required] In the years following the Second World War, advertising work declined in general. Political scientists have begun to question the usefulness of traditional campaigns. The model of behavior of Michigan voters has become accepted wisdom.
She argued that voters have entrenched partisan loyalties and that changes in such loyalties take years to develop. A simple blow to the door will not change a voter`s opinion. The parties therefore shifted their advertising resources from voters` conviction and focused solely on identifying their supporters and ensuring that they voted.  The British Labour Party took over the reading system developed by Ian Mikardo to win the Reading constituency in 1945. It was based on focusing exclusively on pro-Labour areas and increasing its turnout, while non-partisan ones were ignored.  New technologies have changed the way canvassing has been carried out. While door-to-door blocking before COVID-19 was the most common advertising technique, advertising can also be done via phone, SMS and social media. Extensive voter databases, such as the Democrats` NGP VAN, have gathered data, consumer information, and demographic profiles to enable accurate voter orientation. Campaigns would no longer knock on every door in a borough, but voters most convinced of supporting the candidate or going to the polls could be targeted.
Large campaigns have incorporated A/B testing into their ads in order to further refine and improve their effectiveness.  Door-to-door advertising is little known in most other countries. It has been used in several Latin American countries, including Brazil and Chile.  Similar tactics were tried in France and Germany after the very high publicity of the Obama campaign.  The Canvasser will try to contact each of the households on his list and provide a script with compelling questions and messages provided by the campaign. . . .